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Subterranean-nesting solitary or eusocial species with short, pointed tongues. For solitary species the female establishes a nest in the spring with the males and new females emerging in the summer. After mating the males die and the females over-winter as diapausing adults. Eusocial species rear two broods a year. The first of these is reared by the queen, after which some workers remain in the nest to help the queen rear a second brood of males and new queens.