BWARS Maps and Species Concepts

There have been quite a few developments in how BWARS deals with species - primarily moving to a species concept basis. Simply put, this relates the interpretation of a name to a publication, which in turn relates to the type specimen. A more complete illustration can be found in the downloads on this page.

All data received, verified and validated by BWARS up to 2020 has been mapped.

We would be very grateful for any comments regarding these maps. There are always errors which creep in, your vigilance in pointing these out is greatly valued.

Some modern papers which relate to some of the changes in species concepts are also available as downloads here.


All the species maps can now be found on the species concept pages.


  • Black dots are 1990 to present,
  • grey dots 1960 up to 1989,
  • open ones pre 1960.


Species or Species concept? - an explanation of the names used by BWARS
Species concept dictionary - pdf BWARS 2019
Species concept dictionary - spreadsheet BWARS 2019
Species concepts: Notes and references for Species Concept Dictionary comments (BWARS 2017) doc link

Evolution of Aculeates: Branstetter, M.G. et al. Phylogenomic Insights into the Evolution of Stinging Wasps and the Origins of Ants and Bees


Lasius: Seiffert, B., A Taxonomic Revision of the Palaearctic Members of the Ant Subgenus Lasius s. str. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Ponera: Csősz, S. and Seifert, B. Ponera Testacea Emery, 1895 Stat. N. – A Sister Species of P. Coarctata (Latreille, 1802) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

Stenamma: Dubois, M.,B. A Revision of the Ant Genus Stenamma in the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions

Tapinoma: Seiffert, B. Clarifying naming and identification of the outdoor species of the ant genus Tapinoma FÖRSTER, 1850 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Europe north of the Mediterranean region with description of a new species


Nomada facilis: Notton, D.G. and Norman, H. Hawk's-Beard Nomad Bee, Nomada facilis, New to Britain (Hymenoptera: Apidae)


Social Wasps: Dvořák, L. &  Roberts, S.P.M. Key to the paper and social wasps of Central Europe (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

Chrysididae Key: Paukkunen, et al.An illustrated key to the cuckoo wasps (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) of the Nordic and Baltic countries,
with description of a new species

Spilomena: Vikberg, V.V. A re-evaluation of five European species of Spilomena with a key to European species and relevance to the fauna of North Europe, especially Finland (Hymenoptera: Pemphredonidae)