This forum was a place to discuss matters related to BWARS and general matters related to aculeates but it has fallen into disuse in recent times and we do not recomend posting to it. In contrast UK Bees, Wasps and Ants Facebook page is very active with several posts every day. The Facebook page is a great place to post identification queries and other matters relating to BWARS.
Updated version December 2022. The Vespine key on the BWARS website has been extensively revised for many of the male characters, most notably the males of V. rufa, V. germanica and V. vulgaris. The markings on these species are very variable and the only reliable way of separating them is by looking at the genitalia of dead specimens, in particular the shape of the central 'tongue' or adeagus.
There have been small alterations elsewhere in the text.